The causes that led to the partition of Pakistan

In 1947 Pakistan got independence after British India was separated into a single predominant Muslim region comprising of two distinct regions which are East Pakistan and West Pakistan. The partitioning enhanced communal war between the Muslims and Indians resulting in the influx of refugees while also reflecting disputes present between China, India, Pakistan over the leadership of the region of Kashmir(Bradnock, 2010).

There has been a severe war in a period of six different intervals of about some weeks or years within the territorial borders. In the period of January 1948, there was the adoption of Resolution 39 of 1948 by the United Nations (U.N), which led to the development of the Un Commission for Pakistan and India (UNCIP) to arbitrate the Kashmir clash as well as investigate facts.

There was the inclusion of observers to restore peace, through the Resolution 47 that enlarged the UNCIP membership as reflected by Security Council thus leading to the deployment of unarmed military overseers in January 1949 (Bruno, 2010). Consequently, the Karachi accord of 1949 July 27 created a peaceful environment between India and Pakistan thus creating a peaceful ground for the Unarmed Military observers to monitor, Line of Control (LOC) (Bradnock, 2010).

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

Pakistan’s volunteers invaded  Kashmir Valley in the operation Gilbraltar hence leading to a war that lasted for a period of five weeks that’s is on 23rd September 1965, after both parties ceased fire. This cease-fire result was facilitated by world powers via the UN Security Council Resolution 211 of 1965. Pakistan and India agreed to return to their earlier sides of Line of Control, negotiated through the Tashkent Declaration of 1966, January 10 (Zambelis . 2009).

The 1970 Pakistan elections

In 1970, Pakistan held an election that was conducted under the management of Legal Framework Order, which aimed to create balanced governance due to the enactment of martial law as well as the new constitution presence. The AwamiLegue (AL) scoped the majority sits in East Pakistan while the Pakistan People’s Party in West Pakistan under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took the second place (Zambelis . 2009). The AL position of having the majority assured it of a better governing position in the government, but this was not the case, as the party leader, Sheikh MujiburRebman was denied the premiership by the president.

Through negotiation Rebman negotiated for a premiership post in East, while Ali to get the same post in West Pakistan, relying on the decentralization of authority as well as enhanced provincial sovereignty. This led to demonstrations hence causing the West Pakistan army units operations in East Pakistan triggering the Bengalis declaring independence as well as a civil war. India offered support to the Bengalis army, MuktiBahini, to help defeat the West army hence the Indian military assistant led to the defeat of the East Pakistans’ hence leading to the creation of the Bangladesh state (International Crisis Group. 2009). 



Bradnock, R. W. (2010).Kashmir: Paths to Peace. London: Chatham House.

Zambelis, C. (2009). Separatists, Islamists and Islamabad Struggle for Control of Pakistani Balochistan. Washington, DC: The Jamestown Foundation.

International Crisis Group. (April, 2009) Pakistan Conflict History. Brussels, Belgium: International Crisis Group.

Bruno, G. (19th, July, 2010). U.S. Drone Activities in Pakistan. Council on Foreign Relations

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