The events that led to the partition of India

The British rule in India was still in fear of the potential threats reflected in the Muslims who were the former India ruler under the leadership of Mughal Empire for years above 300 hence bringing out a divide and rule concept. Moreover, Mughal leadership was characterized by the organizing of individuals into religious settings. Therefore, the Indians began to prepare for independence under the British rule hence leading to the emergence of two basic communal factions focusing on the Indian nationalist revolution, such as the Indian National Congress, which strained to control the management and movement of the nation (Wolpert,1997).

However, the Muslims felt insecure at the hands of Hindus who were the majority in population while the Hindus were of the view that the nationalists’ officials were favoring the Muslims who were a minority and infringing the rights of Hindus who were the majority (Paul, 2005).

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All India Muslim League

The suspicious Indian Muslims over the secular mainstream, which leaned on the majority of Indian such as Indian National Congress, led to the formation of All India Muslim League (AIML) in 1906 at Dakar hence resulting to a diverse proposal in different period. At first, a philosopher known as Allama Iqbal made a suggestion for liberal states as earlier reflected in his 1930 presidential speech in Muslim League convention, where he stated that a liberalized Muslim state whose much better compared to when they are in the subcontinent dominated with Hindus (Jawaharlal, 1993).

In 1935, the Sindh Assembly made it a requirement through passing the resolutions hence Iqbal Jouhar and comrades enacted a draft of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was by then working for the unity between Muslim-Hindu, to lead the lobby group towards newly formed states. Jinnah denounced major parties like Congress reflecting it as insensitive towards the minority group, which were the Muslims group (Jinna, 1993). Through Jinnah’s reflection of his commitment towards two different states in Labore, the AIML conference, in 1940, the League grew stronger.

Gandhi’s view on partition

From 1932 to 1937, the Hindu association, like, the Hindu Mahasabha were for separation of the Muslims and Hindus despite that they were not supporting division of the nation. A large percentage of congress mentors were secularists who were opposed to the partitioning of India as per religious basis, hence, this concept was supported by Mohandas Gandhi who was an irenic and religious thus purporting that both Muslims and Indians should live in harmony.

Gandhi’s effort in trying to unit both the Muslims and Islams enraged the religion as reflected by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu National, hence leading to the assassination of Gandhi. This led to fear by both religious leaders triggering demonstrations in Calcutta in 1946 during the Muslim’s League Direct Action Day, thus killings of 5000 citizens as well as others injured in Bengal and India begging for a political solution on territory partitioning (Andreas,  & Zimmermann, 2006). 



Andreas, W. & Zimmermann, D. (2006).International Relations : From the Cold War to the Globalized World. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Inc,

Jawaharalal, N. (1993). “The Discovery of India.” Hasan, Mushirul. India’s Partition. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Jinna, M.A. (1993). “Presidential Address.” Hasan, Mushirul. India’s Partition. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Paul, T .U. (2005). The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University press.

Wolpert,S. (1997). A New History of India. New York: Oxford University press.

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