Protein synthesis

Protein synthesis, which carries translation in it, and DNA sequencing, are very important in the study concerning DNA and are being used by scientists in their day to day research on organisms.

Protein synthesis is a process that contains two parts process, involving a nucleic acid RNA, which differs from DNA, in that, RNA sugar units are ribose while those in DNA are deoxyribose (Griffiths et al, 2005). RNA contains uracil instead of thymine which is contained in DNA.

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The 2 processes of protein synthesis

The two processes involved in protein synthesis are transcription and translation. Transcription is the first process where an enzyme polymerase, performs the duplication of the DNA sequence resulting in the related molecule known as messenger RNA (mRNA), replacing thymine with uracil. The DNA is left in the nucleus, while messenger RNA moves out to occupy the cytoplasm (Tucker et al, 2009).

Translation, on the other hand, is a process in the protein synthesis that involves the conversion of ribosome bases into amino acids by the use of transfer RNA to attach to the messenger RNA. The process starts with the mRNA manufactured leaving the cell nucleus and traveling to the organelle ribosome where its code is translated into transfer RNA code (Ross and Orlowiski, 1982).

The transfer RNA code is then transferred into a protein sequence. During this process, the three sets of the mRNA called the codon pair up each with the transfer RNA base sets called anticodon. Each transfer RNA is usually specific to a certain amino acid and as they are added to the sequence the amino acid continues to be bonded by the peptide bonds. This, in turn, forms a protein that is released by the transfer RNA.

DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the determination of the exact sequence of nucleotides in model DNA. DNA sequencing transforms DNA from an organism into a layout that can be put into use by researchers for the study of biology for instance in forensics.

There are many methods that can be used for DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing goes through four phases. The initial phase involves the removal of the DNA from the cell followed by a sequencing reaction of the DNA (Pettersson et al, 2009). It is then divided by size and then lastly scrutinized by the computer that places the outcome in a usable format.

During the first step, the DNA is removed from the cell either mechanically or chemically and since the two strands cannot be sequenced concurrently they are separated and put on vectors where they will replicate indefinitely besides the primer (a chemical initiating the process) (Murphy et al, 2005).

After sequencing is done, capillary electrophoresis then sort the DNA based on size. The computer then gets fed with this information after which the DNA sequence gets displayed on the screen.

In conclusion, the information provided by the DNA molecules has been of much use to the biologists and has helped a lot in the research about organisms.


Griffiths, J. F. A., Miller, H. J., Suzuki, T. D., Lewotin C. R., &William, M. G. (2005). Introduction to Genetic Analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Murphy, K. Berg, K., and Eshleman, J. (2005). “Sequencing of genomic DNA by combined amplification and cycle sequencing reaction.” Clinical chemistry 51 (1), 35–39.

Pettersson, E, Lundeberg, J and Ahmadian, A. (2009). “Generations of sequencing technologies”. Genomics 93 (2), 105–11

Ross, J.F., Orlowski, M (1982). “Growth-rate-dependent adjustment of ribosome functions in chemostat-grown cells of the fungus Mucor racemosus“. J. Bacteriol. 149 (2), 650–653.

Tucker,  T.,  Marra  M., Friedman  J. M. (2009). “Massively Parallel Sequencing: The Next Big Thing in Genetic Medicine”. The American Journal of Human Genetics 85 (2), 142–154

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